Cognition

Children and Dance: Spontaneous Tempo, Body Morphology and The Problem of Synchronizing to an External Beat

by Allie Utley, Volume 2 (2009)

Keywords: rhythm, synchronization, children, dance, spontaneous motor tempo

Abstract: Research regarding children and dance is scarce and relatively inconclusive. Though many speculations may be supported by future studies, existing research supports one account in particular. First, this article briefly explores the inability of children to synchronize movement to an external beat. Then, through research and experimentation, this article aims to test whether this rhythmic deficiency might result from a discrepancy between average musical tempi and a child's natural rate of movement as established by spontaneous motor tempo and body morphology.

The Effects of Attention on Frisson-Related Responses from Unexpected Musical Events

by Joe Plazak, Volume 1, Number 2 (Autumn 2008)

Keywords: frisson, chills, unexpected harmonies, unexpected dynamics, attention, EDA

Abstract: The state of consciousness necessary to elicit frisson-related responses from music was examined using a 2 by 3 mixed design experiment. Fourteen participants (6 males, 8 females) listened to three short samples of music that contained one of three musical events: an unexpected harmony, an unexpected dynamic change or an unexpected entrance of a new part. Half of the participants were directed to focus their undivided attention on the music; the others were told to relax and focus on their breathing patterns. The results for each musical event varied, but no significant differences were found between the two conditions. This might suggest that if musical events elicit frisson-related responses, they do so regardless of the listener's conscious state.