An Analytic Method for Atonal Music that Combines Straus's Pattern Completion and Associational Models with Selection Criteria Based on Cognitive Considerations
Keywords: prolongational model, associational model, haupttontechnik, pattern-completion, prerequisite conditions, salient conditions
In the early 1980s, Joseph Straus proposed the concept of pattern completion, which touched upon an interdisciplinary linkage between cognitive psychology and musical analysis. Straus later presented the associational model, in which tones interspersed in a large-scale tonal space could be interrelated through specific pitch-class sets and thereby established theoretical justifications for what he proposed in his earlier articles. However, the premises of these concepts raise some issues that still await further logical and theoretical explanation, most importantly the establishment of selection and segmentation criteria.
In this respect, I critically examine Straus's concepts and briefly survey analytic methods for twentieth-century music. Finally, I suggest my own analytic model, which synthesizes Straus's pattern completion and associational models with my prerequisite conditions (modified from Lerdahl's salient conditions), which considers the listener's cognition in the establishment of selection criteria.
As a test of my thesis, I apply this analytic method to two atonal works by Isang Yun, Glissees (1970) for solo cello and Gasa (1963) for violin and piano. This analytic tool may prove useful in illuminating structural secrets latent in other post-tonal music.
Children and Dance: Spontaneous Tempo, Body Morphology and The Problem of Synchronizing to an External Beat
Keywords: rhythm, synchronization, children, dance, spontaneous motor tempo
Research regarding children and dance is scarce and relatively inconclusive. Though many speculations may be supported by future studies, existing research supports one account in particular. First, this article briefly explores the inability of children to synchronize movement to an external beat. Then, through research and experimentation, this article aims to test whether this rhythmic deficiency might result from a discrepancy between average musical tempi and a child's natural rate of movement as established by spontaneous motor tempo and body morphology.
Keywords: Jacobus de Kerle, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Preces speciales, Missa Papae Marcelli, Council of Trent
The dissertation Jacobus de Kerle, Leben und Werke, by Otto Ursprung was published in Munich in 1913. In it, Ursprung reintroduced Jacobus de Kerle (1531/1532–1591), a nearly forgotten Franco-Flemish composer of the post-Josquin generation to the musical world. Kerle's Preces speciales, a set of polyphonic devotional responsoria, are the only pieces known to have been composed for the Council of Trent (1545–1563). Ursprung challenged the widely circulated legend that Palestrina's Missa Papae Marcelli was the piece that kept sacred polyphony from being banned by the musical reforms of the Council of Trent. Many later sources corroborate Ursprung's hypothesis that Kerle, not Palestrina, was the "saviour of church music."
Using evidence from Palestrina's Missarum Liber Primus and Missarum Liber Secundus and Kerle's Preces, Ursprung's hypothesis is supported. The Preces speciales of 1562 allowed Kerle, not Palestrina, to influence the debates on musical reform at the Council of Trent, perpetuating sacred polyphony. A brief review of the Tridentine musical reforms is given, before examining Kerle's work and its effect at the Council. Finally Palestrina's masses, particularly the Missae Papae Marcelli, Ecce sacerdos magnus, and de Beata Virgine (Missarum Liber Secundus), and problems they present to the scholar are examined.
Sonata was composed during the fall of 2007. My original intent was to compose an extended work for the guitar. I incorporated a couple special effects into this piece. The first is the use of artificial harmonics which, requires the right hand to pluck an octave higher then what the left hand is playing. The second is the tampora, a drum effect created by striking the strings close to the bridge. This can be found throughout the second movement. The tambora is an effect commonly used by flamenco guitarist.